Breast cancer is a type of cancer that forms specifically within the breasts, as the cells within said breasts start to grow at a rapid pace that its not natural for the human body and its standards of cell production. When these cells reproduce at such rapid rates they often form large lumps of abnormal tissue within the body known as tumors. What makes breast cancer so unique is that not only does it mainly affect women disproportionately, ninety-nine percent of the time but it also only appears under breast tissue and typically inside the ducts and lobules. The variants of this general type of cancer can be identified through looking at the site in which the breast cancer initially began to start forming out of control.

This type of cancer is typically one that can go a while undetected, as a woman must first either go to the doctor to have an examination done or find a lump indicating a tumor within her breast on her own. Catching it quickly and early is very important, as it is with any other type of cancer as that ensures that treatment can be started immediately after this discovery and this will further make sure that the woman or man who is afflicted with this type of cancer will not require very invasive surgery or will not have to worry about potentially dying as a result of their cancer. Not every lump that is discovered in the breast necessarily has to be a sign of cancer as many lumps found in random areas of the body may very well be benign and harmless for the most part. If cancer is left unchecked it may take a toll on the body as it spreads around the victim and makes them feel a constant sense of pain as their body behaves in a very unnatural manner internally.

Most women and even men with breast cancer will have some type of surgery to remove the tumor. Depending on the type of breast cancer and how advanced it is, you might need other types of treatment as well, either before or after surgery or sometimes both. Generic Nolvadex which is used by medical professionals in Australia to treat breast cancer is considered 'systemic therapy' because it can reach cancer cells almost anywhere in the body. They can be given by mouth or put directly into the bloodstream. Depending on the type of breast cancer, different types of drug treatment might be used, which often ranges in terms of how harmful its side effects may be on the body as it works to cure the cancer from the patient. 

There are many different options and types of breast reconstruction procedures. Some are done at the same time as a surgical operation that is done to remove the breast while others are done later. Breast reconstruction surgery is often done when there is a large amount of damage done to the breasts that has to be repaired for the sake of mostly cosmetic purposes. All in all, getting any case of breast cancer will certainly stick with someone for the rest of the life, be it through physical scars or mental.

Erectile Dysfunction: The disease that men need to keep down to keep them up

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                                                                             ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

Erectile dysfunction, also known as impotence and abbreviated as ED, is a condition in which there is inability to achieve and maintain penile erection enough for sexual intercourse. It should not be confused with premature ejaculation whereby there is early emission of semen occurring just after beginning sexual intercourse, leading to flaccidity of the penis.

Most erectile dysfunction is related to vascular, neurologic, hormonal and psychologic disorders. It can also be iatrogenic whereby some drugs can result in an alteration of the normal erectile process.

It has a prevalence of more than 50% in men aged between 40-70 years. It has however been successfully manageable using drug therapy and psychotherapy for those whose main cause is psychological disturbances.

In order to properly understand erectile dysfunction, there is need to understand the physiology of the normal erectile process.

Performance Anxiety


Normal Erectile Process and Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction

The penis is made up of smooth muscles known as bulbocavernosus muscles. These muscles are supplied with blood by helicine arteries, and also supplied with autonomic preganglionic nerves which mediate the erectile response. During sexual excitation, there is release of chemicals knowns as nuerotransmitters from the autonomic nerve endings and a release of relaxation factors from endothelial cells lining the sinusoids in the penile smooth muscle. The major relaxation factor is nitric oxide(NO), which induces production of other relaxation factors such as cGMP and cAMP, which result in molecular changes that cause relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arteries and arterioles that supply the erectile tissue, causing a sudden increase in penile blood flow. Additional relaxation of sinusoidal smooth muscle increases its compliance, facilitating raoid filling and expansion. The venules beneath the tunica albuginea are compressed, resulting in near-total occlusion of venous outflow. This cascade results in an erection. Testosterone is also a key hormone that acts together with its metabolite dihydroteststerone to mediate erection by enhancing NO production.

ED etiology is usually divided into two broad categories, which are; organic and psychogenic. However, pure psychogenic ED is uncommon- it is usually superimposed with other organic etiologies.

Various diseases affect the erectile function by altering the nervous, vascular and hormonal systems, producing changes that affect proper function of the bulbocarvenosal smooth muscle.

Diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease,neurologial disorders such as stroke, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis, COPD, depression and athersclerosis may affect erectile function.

Other risk factors for development of ED are smoking, alcohol abuse, endocrine disorders such as hypogonadism, and obesity.


Diagnosis of ED

Diagnosis involves clinical evaluation of the aforementioned risk factors, screening for depression and examination of the genitals for possible signs of hormonal, neurologic and vascular disorders.

Lab tests are also run to check on the levels of testosterone, and total blood cholesterol levels.


Treatment of ED

Fortunately enough, there are medications available for treatment of ED. After diagnosis, the doctor will evaluate on the appropriate medications to prescribe depending on the severity of ‘damage’.

The underlying causes can be treated such as diabetes, among others before rushing to prescribe drugs for ED.

Oral PDE5 inhibitors( phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors) such as sildenafil, avanafil, tadalafil and vardenafil can be used and taken as prescribed, usually once a day and a few minutes to an hour to sexual intercourse. Intracavernosal alprostadil can also be administered in more severe cases.

Vacuum erection devices as well as surgery can be opted for, should the aforementioned treatment plans fail.

Note that it may be dangerous to use the above drugs without the doctor’s prescription because of serious adverse effects that may ensue such as prolonged painful erections with penile fracture.


Prevention of ED

Exercise and lifestyle modifications may improve erectile function. Weight loss, avoiding risk factors such as smoking and alcohol abuse that predispose one to ED is efficient in increasing and maintaining testosterone levels.